TLS and Postfix

Upgrading some of our Mail Servers to support for TLS (Transport Layer Security) in Postfix and apart from learning how to do it, also learned a key maxim of programmers (readily applicable to system administrators)

DO NOT PRE-OPTIMISE

Wasted two days of my life, with increased anxiety during the install, configuration process because I was trying to be too smart too early.

After a Duhhh moment, I went back to the very beginning of the install process, and did everything as per the known guides (without that little tweak I had preconceived, and the install worked in less than an 1 hour)

My failure? I got too far ahead of myself, with bright ideas, untested of how I wanted things to work, and started modifying my plans (and solidifying assumptions about how things will work) before collecting evidence for that the assumptions for each stage, were valid.

My idea was for the TLS roll-out on 5 different servers (all requiring SSL certificates) could all use one Certificate Authority. I'd made self-signed certificates before, so presumed/guessed at an approach for one centralised Certificate Authority. Unfortunately, instead of verifying my assumptions of how that can be done, I steam-rolled ahead ass-uming some minor modifications to the process would just work.

  1. Create Certificate Authority (CA) key
  2. Create Certificate Signing Request (CSR) for the host
  3. Create a Certificate (CRT) from the CSR, signed by my new the CA key

The install failed, but gave error messages hinting at problems with the key created in my step #2, or the certificate created in step #3. After agonising through different diagnostic processes from the various error messages. It took 2 whole days to throw away the assumption that caused the error, my change in how I was generating (or using a Certificate Authority.) Arggghhhh!!!

I had been blindly looking at various avenues for why Step #2 or Step #3 were not working correctly, including trying stupid hints from random websites.

The error that Postfix was throwing up said that:

File extract: /var/log/maillog

warning: cannot get RSA private key from file /etc/ssl/private/server.key.pem:disabling TLS support
warning: TLS library problem: xxxxxx certificates routine xxxx key values mismatch xxxxx src/crypto/x509/x509_cmp.c:318:
  1. Can't read the Key
  2. There is no match between the key and certificate

OK, the key file is there, I can see it in the file system. I can open it up with openssl and verify that it is a valid key file by using:

sudo openssl rsa -noout -text -in /path-to/private/server.key.pem

I could even validate that the signed certificate is a valid certificate, likewise the Certificate Authority certificate (so far as our current understanding tells us.)

sudo openssl req -noout -text -in /path-to/server.crt.pem
sudo openssl req -noout -text -in /path-to/private/ca.crt.pem

I blissfully ignore the 2nd error message until I could resolve why my Postfix server was complaining about the Server Key. The assumption, it's probably an 'artifact,' an error caused by the previous error (can't open the key.) We find all sorts of "solutions" on the web, which may work on other OS's, but irrelevant for our OpenBSD install (most related to using 'openssl rsa -in server.key.pem -out server.key.rsa.pem to make sure that the key file is not password protected ?) Not relevant for our OpenBSD install.

It was well into the third day before I found references to verifying that a certificate is created from a key.

$ sudo openssl rsa -noout -text -in /path-to/private/server.key.pem -modulus \
    | grep ^Modulus | openssl md5
$ sudo openssl x509 -noout -text -in /path-to/server.crt.pem -modulus \
    | grep ^Modulus | openssl md5

The use of "| openssl md5" just simplifies the comparison of the Modulus values which are supposed to be the same if they are paired (i.e. certificate was generated from the key.) There's also the requirement that both "public exponent" are equal but the above Modulus comparison is a quick verification process.

OK, I'm running the above command line on my self-signed certificate, and server key. The Modulus DO NOT MATCH.

What?? That doesn't make sense?

I wander through comparisons of all the key & certificate pairs, to find out that the Modulus for my designated CA Key, matches with the Self-Signed Certificate.

What?? That doesn't make sense?

Obviously (duhh) there must be something wrong with my signing process. We trace back our implementation steps and re-do, re-test.

  • Step #3. No that didn't work. No, don't repeat it again. Go back to
  • Step #2 then #3. No that didn't work. No, don't repeat it again. Go back to
  • Step #1 then #2, then #3. No that didn't work.
OK, something is seriously wrong!!!

The 2nd error (and quick perusal into the source code) definitely indicates that the key file is not related to the certificate. Our Modulus investigations above shows that the key/certificate pairs are not created correctly. Could my CA ideas be the cause of my install failures?

Throw that assumption away and create certificates how you've always done it.

  • Step #2 Sign the CSR using the Server Key.

Normal self-signed instructions always use the same key for the CA as well as the Server.

5 minutes later, we have Postfix TLS working as expected, and our documentation is complete. Postfix TLS without dovecot, without cyrus-sasl, woohoo, too easy.

Now to verify that TLS actually encrypts ?

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