Table of Contents
* <a href="#ssh">Remote Access with ssh</a> * <a href="#sshconfig">Configuring ssh</a> * <a href="#sshd">sshd - your ssh server daemon</a> * <a href="#sshd.disableRoot">Disable Root Login</a> * <a href="#scp">Copying a file through SSH</a> * <a href="#nopassword">SSH Login without a Password</a> * Generate SSH keys * Copy to Destination Host * Set up agent * Connect * <a href="#tunnel">SSH Tunnel</a> * <a href="#portforwarding">Port Forwarding</a> * <a href="#remoteportforwarding">Remote Port Fowarding</a> * <a href="#tunnel.smb">SSH Tunnel SMB</a> * <a href="#limitbandwidth"> Limit Bandwidth used</a> * <a href="#misc">Miscellaneous</a> * <a href="#sshLinks" class="anchBlue">SSH Links</a>
Veterans know their way back, forward, up, down, sideways. The rest of us need serious assistance with effective utilisation of this basic infrastructure for managing our servers:
When the itch arrives and you just have to get a ‘console’ connection to that server, telnet is asking for someone to sniff your password and OpenBSD’s OpenSSH is the preferred, secureable ’terminal’ access system. Ssh is the preferred method of remote access with OpenBSD. There are many features of ssh including the ability to provide a tunnel for other services. The clear advantage of ssh is the full encryption of all communications between the localhost and the remote host.
For the MS Windows fans amongst us there are even ssh clients Windows can run as a terminal window or from the command-prompt.
Communicating with a remote host is usually in the form shown below:
$ **ssh firstname.lastname@example.org**
If you don’t specify the user-id you wish to login as, then ssh will send the current user-id in which you started ssh (ie. if you are currently logged into your host as johndoe, then ssh remotehost.example.com will attempt to make the connection using your user-id, johndoe)
ssh checks for its configuration from the command-line, then the user’s configuration file ($HOME/.ssh/config), then the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) The files are text files.
Below is an excerpt of what I choose to include in the system wide /etc/ssh_config file
UseRsh no FallBackToRsh no ForwardX11 no KeepAlive no Protocol 2,1
More documentation can be found in the man pages (ssh(1).) I choose not to UseRsh or FallBackToRsh because I want secure communications or none. I don’t want to be forwarding X11 because I don’t run X11 on the servers I’m connecting to. I don’t want keepalive ‘cause if I’m not doing something with the connection I would prefer it to dump me.
sshd is the daemon that listens for connections from clients. It is normally started at boot from /etc/rc. It forks a new daemon for each incoming connection. The forked daemons handle key exchange, encryption, authentication, command execution, and data exchange. This implementation of sshd supports both SSH protocol version 1 and 2 simultaneously.
System configuration is normally controlled by the /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Below is an excerpt of the config file
Port 22 ListenAddress 0.0.0.0 ListenAddress :: HostKey /etc/ssh_host_key ServerKeyBits 1664 **PermitRootLogin yes**
The afterboot(8) man page recommends that you disable direct login to root through the ssh daemon.
For security reasons, it is bad practice to log in as root during regular use and maintenance of the system. Instead, administrators are encouraged to add a "regular" user, add said user to the "wheel" group, then use the su and sudo commands when root privieges are required.
Edit the /etc/sshd_config file:
Check through the /etc/ssh/sshd_config for what looks interesting, and look through the man page for further information.
DO NOT DISCONNECT an active ssh connection until AFTER testing has verified behaviour is as you expect.
Review the sshd configuration file without all the commentary with something like the below (assuming sshd_config is the correct file and in /etc/ssh)
$ grep -v "^#" /etc/ssh/sshd_config | grep -v "^$"
This just clears things out so we verify what we think we’re changing (not necessarily whether it is correct or not.)
From the man page of the sshd’s I’m using,
-t Test mode. Only check the validity of the configuration file and sanity of the keys. This is useful for updating sshd reliably as configuration options may change.
Other changes can have more subtle circumstances. For example, do not disable password authentication until you are sure that the public key authentication is working correctly.
$ sudo /usr/sbin/sshd -ddd -p 9999
This keeps your existing, working session active, but gives you another instance of sshd to verify your new configuration changes. SSHD is now running in the foreground to a user-defined port (9999 in our example.) and pushing a lot of noisy debug information you can track in /var/log/authlog (or possibly /var/log/auth.log depending on your OS.)
Run the ssh client connection in verbose mode to display on your screen more information that might lead you to better debugging your error.
$ ssh -vvv -p 9999 server-name
You should now have enough information in either the server’s log files, or the client’s connection screen to isolate any problems.
scp is a utility that allows you to copy files between hosts using the ssh transport. With ssh2 there is also support for gzip style compression of files for transmission.
$ scp files email@example.com:path
* Generate SSH keys * Copy to Destination Host * Set up agent * Connect
Use ssh-keygen to generate authentication keys.
From manpage ssh-keygen(1):
ssh-keygen generates, manages and converts authentication keys for ssh(1). ssh-keygen can create RSA keys for use by SSH protocol version 1 and RSA or DSA keys for use by SSH protocol version 2. The type of key to be generated is specified with the -t option. If invoked without any arguments, ssh-keygen will generate an RSA key for use in SSH protocol 2 connections.
To generate our authentication keys at:
ssh-keygen -b 4096 -t rsa
-b bits Specifies the number of bits in the key to create. -t type Specifies the type of key to create. The possible values are ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for proto- col version 2.
For ssh authentication keys to work, the SSH Daemon on the remote host needs to have access to the public key generated above. This file is usually located in ~/.ssh as authorized_keys.
ssh user@remotehost mkdir ~/.ssh ssh user@remotehost chmod 0700 ~/.ssh cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh user@remotehost "cat - >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys" ssh user@remotehost chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
To set up login, such that you only have to enter your ssh authentication password (not your remotehost password) and for that authentication to persist whilst your desktop session is active, we use an ‘agent’ to securely hold your credentials.
From the manpage ssh-agent(1):
ssh-agent is a program to hold private keys used for public key authentication (RSA, DSA). The idea is that ssh-agent is started in the beginning of an X-session or a login session, and all other windows or programs are started as clients to the ssh-agent program.
From the manpage ksh(8):
eval command ... The arguments are concatenated (with spaces between them) to form a single string which the shell then parses and executes in the current environment.
Add the credentials to the agent store using ssh-add
From manpage ssh-add(1):
ssh-add adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent, ssh-agent(1). When run without arguments, it adds the files ~/.ssh/id_rsa, ~/.ssh/id_dsa and ~/.ssh/identity. Alternative file names can be given on the command line.
You should now be able to connect to the remote host without need to enter your HOST password
SSH Tunnels are simpler to execute using authentication keys.
* <a href="#portforwarding">Port Forwarding</a> * <a href="#remoteportforwarding">Remote Port Fowarding</a>
From manpage ssh(1):
-4 Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only. -A Enables forwarding of the authentication agent connection. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file. -f Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphras- es, but the user wants it in the background. This implies -n. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm. -L [bind_address:]port:host:hostport -N Do not execute a remote command. This is useful for just for- warding ports (protocol version 2 only).
Something we use a lot is to lock down the POP3 (port 110) on our servers. POP3 is normally only available from localhost.
In the below example, used in our fetchmailrc files, we access POP3 by forwarding a localhost port address to the POP3 port on the remote host (from inside the host.)
Local Host to Remote Host
ssh -4 -f -L1125:127.0.0.1:110 $REMOTEHOST -N
We can now encrypt traffic to POP3 port on REMOTEHOST by talking to port 1125 on our current machine.
An interesting permutation of port forwarding, is accessing a REMOTEHOST through a proxy server (e.g. gateway box.)
ssh -4 -f -L6389:$RDPHOST:3389 $PROXY -N
The above example, links port 6389 on our local machine through $PROXY to port 3389 at $RDPHOST. Another valid permutation, is to not use “-N” by executing a “sleep” command (which will tell SSH to teardown the connection if not used within the sleep timeperiod.
ssh -4 -f -L6389:$RDPHOST:3389 $PROXY "sleep 10" && rdesktop -T '$WINDOW_TITLE' uUsername -g800x600 -a8 -rsound:off -5 localhost:6389
We often have the case where access to various machines, is through an intermediary host. We thus have to initiate a tunnel to that intermediary host, then from that host to our actual target host.
To simplify things, we use the same port address on our current host for the port address to be used on the intermediary host.
Local Host to Intermediate Host to Remote Host
ssh -4 -f -A $INTERMEDIATE -L 1109:127.0.0.1:1109 "ssh -4 -L 1109:127.0.0.1:110 $REMOTEHOST -N"
Again, the above example is connecting to the POP3 port on REMOTEHOST, by using a local port 1109 which connects to the same port on an intermediary host.
Limit the bandwidth used for file transfers
scp -l SIZE SRC DST
From manpage scp(1)
-l limit Limits the used bandwidth, specified in Kbit/s.